Friday, September 4, 2020

Water Has Memory!

 Have you ever wondered how a Salmon can swim all those miles upstream from the great wide ocean to spawn exactly where it was born?  It's easy if they have a road map to follow.  Imagine a fish decoding the information in water molecules that tells them exactly where the water has traveled.  The number of waterfalls, the depth of the water, the curves of the stream bed and perhaps even environmental conditions.  

 A new groundbreaking discovery has been made within the most basic of resources. Scientists have just discovered what they have called “The Discovery of The Millennium”, and a huge revelation in human consciousness.

Scientists from Germany now believe that water has a memory, meaning that what once was seen as a simple commodity has now been closely examined to reveal a scientific revelation, uncovering a mind-blowing truth.

By examining individual drops of water at an incredibly high magnification, scientists were able to physically see that each droplet of water has its own individual microscopic pattern, each distinguishable from the next and uniquely beautiful.

A scientific experiment was carried out whereby a group of students were all encouraged to obtain one drop of water from the same body of water, all at the same time. Through close examination of the individual droplets, it was seen that each produced different images.

A second experiment was then carried out where a real flower was placed into a body of water, and after a while a sample droplet of the water was taken out for examination. The resulted produced a mesmerizing pattern when hugely magnified, but all of the droplets of this water looked very similar. When the same experiment was done with a different species of flower, the magnified droplet looked completely different, thereby determining that a particular flower is evident in each droplet of water.

Through this discovery which shows that water has a memory, according to scientists, a new perception of water can be formed. The German scientists believe that as water travels it picks up and stores information from all of the places that it has traveled through, which can thereby connect people to a lot of different places and sources of information when they drink this water, depending on the journey that it has been on.

This has even been compared to the human body, of which each is incredibly unique and has an individual DNA unlike any other. Whilst the human body is made up of 70% water, conclusions could be drawn from these new discoveries that human tears can hold a unique memory of an individual being, through the body’s store of water hosting a complete store of information that is linked to individual experience.

Suggesting that everyone is globally connected by the water in the human body which travels through ongoing journeys, whereby information along the way is always stored.

Article: Scientists Show that Water has Memory

Friday, August 28, 2020

Lone Pine California

 Lone Pine is located 16 miles south-southeast of Independence, at an elevation of 3,727 feet.  The town is located in the Owens Valley, near the Alabama Hills and Mount Whitney, between the eastern peaks of the Sierra Nevada to the west and the Inyo Mountains to the east. From possible choices of urban, rural, and frontier, the Census Bureau identifies this area as "frontier". The town is named after a solitary pine tree that once existed at the mouth of Lone Pine Canyon. On March 26, 1872, the very large Lone Pine earthquake destroyed most of the town and killed 27 of its 250 to 300 residents.

The Paiute individuals occupied the Owens Valley area from ancient times.  These early residents are understood to have developed trading routes which encompassed the Pacific Central Coast, providing products coming from the Owens Valley to such people as the Chumash Native Americans.

A cabin was constructed in the valley during the winter season of 1861-62.  A settlement developed over the following two years.  The Lone Pine post office opened in 1870. 
On March 26, 1872, at 2:30 am, Lone Pine experienced a violent earthquake that destroyed the majority of the town.  At the time, the town consisted of 80 structures made from mud and adobe; just 20 structures were left standing.  As a result of the quake, which formed Diaz Lake, a total of 26 individuals lost their lives.  A mass grave situated just north of town references the site of the primary fault.  One of the few standing structures pre-dating the earthquake is the 21-inch-thick "Old Adobe Wall" located in the alley behind the Lone Star Bistro, a coffee cafe.
During the 1870s, Lone Pine was a crucial supply town for numerous nearby mining communities, consisting of Kearsarge, Cerro Gordo, Keeler, Swansea, and Darwin.  The Cerro Gordo mine high in the Inyo Mountains was one of the most productive silver mines in California.  The silver was brought in ore buckets on a strong cable to Keeler, and then carried four miles northwest to smelter ovens at Swansea.  To provide the necessary building products and fuel for these operations, a sawmill was constructed near Horseshoe Meadows by Colonel Sherman Stevens that produced wood for the smelters and the mines.  The wood was moved by flume to the valley, where it was burned in adobe kilns to make charcoal, which was then transported by steamships throughout Owens Lake to the smelters at Swansea, about 12 miles south of Lone Pine. 
Railways played a significant role in the advancement of Lone Pine and the Owens Valley. In 1883, the Carson and Colorado Railway line was built from Belleville, Nevada, throughout the White Mountains to Benton, and then down into the Owens Valley where it ended in Keeler.  The arrival of the C&C rail line, with its engine "The Slim Princess", and the stagecoach in Keeler were a significant financial increase for the location. Two times a week, passengers showed up on the evening train, stayed the night at the Lake View Hotel (later relabeled the Hotel Keeler), and after that took the stage the following morning to Mojave.  A rail line to the north connected with the Virginia and Truckee Railroad line at Mound House, Nevada. 
In 1920, the history of Lone Pine was significantly changed when a film production company came to the Alabama Hills to make the movie "The Round-Up" (1920 movie)  Other companies soon discovered the picturesque location, and in the coming decades, over 400 movies, 100 tv episodes, and numerous commercials have utilized Lone Pine and the Alabama Hills as a movie location.  Significant films shot here in the 1920s and 1930s include Riders of the Purple Sage (1925) with Tom Mix, The Enchanted Hill (1926) with Jack Holt, Somewhere in Sonora (1927) with Ken Maynard, Blue Steel (1934) with John Wayne, Hop-Along Cassidy (1935) with William Boyd, The Charge of the Light Brigade (1936) with Errol Flynn, Oh, Susanna! (1936) with Gene Autry, Rhythm on the Range (1936) with Bing Crosby, The Cowboy and the Lady (1938) with Gary Cooper, Under Western Stars (1938) with Roy Rogers, and Gunga Din (1939) with Cary Grant.

In the coming decades, Lone Pine and the Alabama Hills continued to be utilized as the setting for Western movies, including West of the Pecos (1945) with Robert Mitchum, Thunder Mountain (1947) with Tim Holt, The Gunfighter (1950) with Gregory Peck, The Nevadan (1950) with Randolph Scott, Bad Day at Black Rock (1955) with Spencer Tracy, Hell Bent for Leather (1960) with Audie Murphy, How the West Was Won (1962) with James Stewart, Nevada Smith (1966) with Steve McQueen, Joe Kidd (1972) with Clint Eastwood, Maverick (1994) with Mel Gibson, and The Lone Ranger (2013) with Johnny Depp. Through the years, non-Western films also utilized the distinct landscape of the area, including Alfred Hitchcock's Saboteur (1942) with Robert Cummings, Samson and Delilah (1949) with Hedy Lamarr, Star Trek V: The Final Frontier (1989) with William Shatner, Tremors (1990) with Kevin Bacon, The Postman (1997) with Kevin Costner, and Gladiator (2000) with Russell Crowe.

Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, on December 7, 1941, President Roosevelt signed an executive order that ordered people of Japanese origins, or appearing to be of Japanese origin, living along the Pacific coast to be placed into concentration camps.  One of these camps, Manzanar, was developed 7 miles north of Lone Pine.

The most essential motion picture filmed in and around Lone Pine is director Raoul Walsh's High Sierra (1941 ), starring Humphrey Bogart as Roy Earle in the function that moved Bogart from appreciated supporting actor to leading actor. Cast and team lodged in Lone Pine, and Walsh shot different scenes in and around Lone Pine. For the film's mountain chase scenes, Walsh took everyone to close-by Mt. Whitney, where pack mules lugged electronic camera equipment up the mountainside: "filming started just outside Lone Pine ... on August 5, 1940. ... On a slope at the side of Mt. Whitney, ... a group of twenty men from the studio worked for 4 days to clear a path so that mountain-trained mules, packing video cameras and other equipment, could get up to the shooting area. ... Bogart had to run three miles up a mountainside for 2 days ... Walsh arranged to have all the big boulders removed from the course of Bogart's last fall, but the smaller rocks stayed, and Bogart grumbled about that a lot. Bogie particularly did not wish to travel up that mountain. This was the shoot on which Walsh provided him the nickname 'Bogey the Beefer'".  John Huston composed the movie script, and Ida Lupino co-starred.

How Green Was The Owens Valley

 The California water wars were a series of political conflicts between the city of Los Angeles and farmers and ranchers in the Owens Valley of Eastern California over water rights.

As Los Angeles expanded during the late 19th century, it began outgrowing its water supply. Fred Eaton, mayor of Los Angeles, realized that water could flow from Owens Valley to Los Angeles via an aqueduct. The aqueduct construction was overseen by William Mulholland and was finished in 1913. The water rights were acquired through political fighting and, as described by one author, "chicanery, subterfuge ... and a strategy of lies".

Since 1913, the Owens River had been diverted to Los Angeles, causing the ruin of the valley's economy. By the 1920s, so much water was diverted from the Owens Valley that agriculture became difficult. This led to the farmers trying to destroy the aqueduct in 1924. Los Angeles prevailed and kept the water flowing. By 1926, Owens Lake at the bottom of Owens Valley was completely dry due to water diversion.

The water needs of Los Angeles kept growing. In 1941, Los Angeles diverted water that previously fed Mono Lake, north of Owens Valley, into the aqueduct. Mono Lake's ecosystem for migrating birds was threatened by dropping water levels. Between 1979 and 1994, David Gaines and the Mono Lake Committee engaged in litigation with Los Angeles. The litigation forced Los Angeles to stop diverting water from around Mono Lake, which has started to rise back to a level that can support its ecosystem.
The Paiute natives were the original inhabitants of the valley, and used irrigation to grow crops.

In 1833, Joseph Reddeford Walker led the first known expedition into the central California area that would later be called the Owens Valley. Walker saw that the valley's soil conditions were inferior to those on the other side of the Sierra Nevada range, and that runoff from the mountains was absorbed into the arid desert ground. After the United States gained control of California in 1848, the first public land survey conducted by A.W. Von Schmidt from 1855 to 1856 was an initial step in securing government control of the valley. Von Schmidt reported that the valley's soil was not good for agriculture except for the land near streams, and incorrectly stated that the "Owens Valley was worthless to the White Man."

In 1861, Samuel Bishop and other ranchers started to raise cattle on the luxuriant grasses that grew in the Owens Valley. The ranchers came into conflict with the Paiutes over land and water use, and most of the Paiutes were driven away from the valley by the U.S. Army in 1863 during the Owens Valley Indian War.

Many settlers came to the area for the promise of riches from mining. The availability of water from the Owens River made farming and raising livestock attractive. The Homestead Act of 1862 gave pioneers five years to claim and take title of their land for a small filing fee and a charge of $1.25 per acre. The Homestead Act limited the land an individual could own to 160 acres in order to create small farms.

The amount of public land settled by the late 1870s and early 1880s was still relatively small. The Desert Land Act of 1877 allowed individuals to acquire more area, up to 640 acres in hopes of drawing more settlers by giving them enough land to make their settlement and land expenses worthwhile, but "included no residency requirements".  By 1866, rapid acquisition of land had begun and by the mid-1890s, most of the land in the Owens Valley had been claimed. The large number of claims made by land speculators hindered the region's development because speculators would not participate in developing canals and ditches.

Before the Los Angeles Aqueduct, most of the 200 miles of canals and ditches that constituted the irrigation system in the Owens Valley were in the north, while the southern region of the valley was mostly inhabited by people raising livestock. The irrigation systems created by the ditch companies did not have adequate drainage and as a result over-saturated the soil to the point where crops could not be raised. The irrigation systems also significantly lowered the water level in the Owens Lake, a process that was intensified later by the diversion of water through the Los Angeles Aqueduct. At the start of the 20th century, the northern part of the Owens Valley turned to raising fruit, poultry and dairy.

Los Angeles Aqueduct: the beginning of the water wars;

Frederick Eaton;
Frederick Eaton and William Mulholland were two of the more visible principals in the California water wars. They were friends, having worked together in the private Los Angeles Water Company in the 1880s. In 1886, Eaton became City Engineer and Mulholland became Superintendent of the Water Company. In 1898, Eaton was elected mayor of Los Angeles and was instrumental in converting the Water Company to city control in 1902.  When the company became the Los Angeles Water Department, Mulholland continued to be superintendent, due to his extensive knowledge of the water system.

Eaton and Mulholland had a vision of a Los Angeles that would become far larger than the Los Angeles of the start of the 20th century.  The limiting factor of Los Angeles's growth was water supply. "If you don't get the water, you won't have it," Mulholland famously remarked. Eaton and Mulholland realized that the Owens Valley had a large amount of runoff from the Sierra Nevada, and a gravity-fed aqueduct could deliver the Owens water to Los Angeles.

Obtaining water rights 1902–1907
At the start of the 20th century, the United States Bureau of Reclamation, at the time known as the United States Reclamation Service, was planning on building an irrigation system to help the farmers of the Owens Valley, which would block Los Angeles from diverting the water.

From 1902 to 1905, Eaton and Mulholland used underhanded methods to obtain water rights and block the Bureau of Reclamation.  The regional engineer of the Bureau, Joseph Lippincott, was a close associate of Eaton,  Eaton was a nominal agent for the Bureau through Lippincott, so Eaton had access to inside information about water rights and could recommend actions to the Bureau that would be beneficial to Los Angeles.  In return, while Lippincott was employed by the Bureau, he also served as a paid private consultant to Eaton, advising Los Angeles on how to best obtain water rights.

To help acquire water rights in 1905, Eaton made high offers to purchase land in Owens Valley. Eaton's eagerness aroused suspicion in a few local Inyo County people.  Eaton bought land as a private citizen, hoping to sell it back to Los Angeles at a tidy profit.  Eaton claimed in an interview with the Los Angeles Express in 1905 that he turned over all his water rights to the City of Los Angeles without being paid for them, "except that I retained the cattle which I had been compelled to take in making the deals ... and mountain pasture land of no value except for grazing purposes".  Eaton moved to the Owens Valley to become a cattle rancher on the land he purchased.  Eaton always denied that he acted in a deceptive manner.

Mulholland misled Los Angeles public opinion by dramatically understating the amount of water locally available for Los Angeles's growth.  Mulholland also misled residents of the Owens Valley: he indicated that Los Angeles would only use unused flows in the Owens Valley, while planning on using the full water rights to fill the aquifer of the San Fernando Valley.

By 1907, Eaton was busy acquiring key water rights and traveling to Washington to meet with advisers of Theodore Roosevelt to convince them that the water of the Owens River would do more good flowing through faucets in Los Angeles than it would if used on Owens Valley fields and orchards.

The dispute over the Owens River water became a political dispute in Washington. Los Angeles needed rights of way across federal land to build the aqueduct. California Senator Frank Flint sponsored a bill to grant the rights of way, but Congressman Sylvester Smith of Inyo County opposed the bill. Smith argued that irrigating Southern California was not more valuable than irrigating Owens Valley. While a compromise was being negotiated, Flint appealed to President Roosevelt.  Roosevelt met with Flint, Secretary of the Interior Ethan A. Hitchcock, Bureau of Forests Commissioner Gifford Pinchot, and Director of the Geological Survey Charles D. Walcott. In this meeting, Roosevelt decided in favor of Los Angeles.

Several authors, such as Rolle and Libecap, argue that Los Angeles paid an unfairly low price to the farmers of Owens Valley for their land.  Gary Libecap of the University of California, Santa Barbara observed that the price that Los Angeles was willing to pay to other water sources per volume of water was far higher than what the farmers received. Farmers who resisted the pressure from Los Angeles until 1930 received the highest price for their land; most farmers sold their land from 1905 to 1925, and received less than Los Angeles was actually willing to pay. However, the sale of their land brought the farmers substantially more income than if they had kept the land for farming and ranching.  None of the sales were made under threat of eminent domain.

The aqueduct was sold to the citizens of Los Angeles as vital to the growth of the city.  Unknown to the public, the initial water would be used to irrigate the San Fernando Valley to the north, which was not at the time a part of the city.  From a hydrological point of view, the San Fernando Valley was ideal: its aquifer could serve as free water storage without evaporation.  One obstacle to the irrigation was the Los Angeles City Charter, which prohibited the sale, lease, or other use of the city's water without a two-thirds approval by the voters.   This charter limitation would be avoided through the annexation of a large portion of the San Fernando Valley to the city. The annexation would also raise the debt limit of Los Angeles, which allowed the financing of the aqueduct.

The San Fernando land syndicate were a group of wealthy investors who bought up large tracts of land in the San Fernando Valley with secret inside information from Eaton. The syndicate included friends of Eaton, such as Harrison Gray Otis and Henry E. Huntington. This syndicate made substantial efforts to support passage of the bond issue that funded the aqueduct. These efforts are reported to have included the dumping of water from Los Angeles reservoirs into the sewers (thereby creating a false drought) and by publishing scare articles in the Los Angeles Times, which Otis published.  Remi Nadeau, a historian and author, disputed that water was dumped from reservoirs, because the sewer system may not have been connected to the reservoirs. The syndicate did unify the business community behind the aqueduct, and its purchases were public by the time the vote on the aqueduct was taken.

The building and operation of the aqueduct 1908–1928

From 1907 through 1913, Mulholland directed the building of the aqueduct. The 233-mile  Los Angeles Aqueduct, inaugurated in November 1913, required more than 2,000 workers and the digging of 164 tunnels. Mulholland's granddaughter has stated that the complexity of the project was comparable to the building of the Panama Canal. Water from the Owens River reached a reservoir in the San Fernando Valley on November 5, 1913. At a ceremony that day, Mulholland spoke his famous words about this engineering feat: "There it is. Take it."

After the aqueduct was completed in 1913, the San Fernando investors demanded so much water from the Owens Valley that it started to transform from "The Switzerland of California" into a desert.  Mulholland was blocked from obtaining additional water from the Colorado River, so decided to take all available water from the Owens Valley.

In 1923, farmers and ranchers formed an irrigation cooperative headed by Wilfred and Mark Watterson, owners of the Inyo County Bank. By exploiting personal bitterness of some of the farmers, Los Angeles managed to acquire some of the key water rights of the cooperative. After these water rights were secured, inflows to Owens Lake were heavily diverted, which caused the lake to dry up by 1924.

By 1924, farmers and ranchers rebelled.  A series of provocations by Mulholland were, in turn, followed by corresponding threats from local farmers, and the destruction of Los Angeles property. Finally, a group of armed ranchers seized the Alabama Gates and dynamited part of the system, letting water return to the Owens River.

In August 1927, when the conflict was at its height, the Inyo County bank collapsed, which massively undermined valley resistance. An audit revealed that there were shortages in both cash in the vault and amounts shown on the books. The Watterson brothers were indicted for embezzlement, then tried and convicted on thirty-six counts. Since all local business had been transacted through their bank, the closure left merchants and customers with little more than the small amount of money they had on hand. The brothers claimed that the fraud was done for the good of the Owens Valley against Los Angeles, and this excuse was generally believed to be true in Inyo County. The collapse of the bank wiped out the lifetime savings of many people, including payments gained from the sale of homes and ranches to Los Angeles.

In the face of the collapse of resistance and of the Owens Valley economy, the attacks on the aqueduct ceased. The City of Los Angeles sponsored a series of repair and maintenance programs for aqueduct facilities, that stimulated some local employment and the Los Angeles water employees were paid a month in advance to bring some relief. But it was impossible to prevent many businesses from closing their doors.

The City of Los Angeles continued to purchase private land holdings and their water rights to meet the increasing demands. By 1928, Los Angeles owned 90 percent of the water in Owens Valley and agriculture interests in the region were effectively dead.

The second Owens Valley Aqueduct, 1970–present

Terminus of the Second Los Angeles Aqueduct, near Sylmar.
In 1970, LADWP completed a second aqueduct. In 1972, the agency began to divert more surface water and pumped groundwater at the rate of several hundred thousand acre-feet a year (several cubic meters per second). Owens Valley springs and seeps dried and disappeared, and groundwater-dependent vegetation began to die.

Because LADWP had never completed an Environmental Impact Report addressing the impacts of groundwater pumping, Inyo County sued Los Angeles under the terms of the California Environmental Quality Act. Los Angeles did not stop pumping groundwater, but submitted a short EIR in 1976 and a second one in 1979, both of which were rejected as inadequate by the courts.

In 1991, Inyo County and the city of Los Angeles signed the Inyo-Los Angeles Long Term Water Agreement, which required that groundwater pumping be managed to avoid significant impacts while providing a reliable water supply for Los Angeles. In 1997, Inyo County, Los Angeles, the Owens Valley Committee, the Sierra Club, and other concerned parties signed a Memorandum of Understanding that specified terms by which the lower Owens River would be re-watered by June 2003 as partial mitigation for damage to the Owens Valley.

In spite of the terms of the Long Term Water Agreement, studies by the Inyo County Water Department from 2003 onward showed that impacts to the valley's groundwater-dependent vegetation, such as alkali meadows, continue.  Likewise, Los Angeles did not re-water the lower Owens River by the June 2003 deadline. In December, 2003, LADWP settled a lawsuit brought by California Attorney General Bill Lockyer, the Owens Valley Committee, and the Sierra Club. Under the terms of the settlement, deadlines for the Lower Owens River Project were revised and LADWP was to return water to the lower Owens River by 2005.  This deadline was missed, but on December 6, 2006, a ceremony was held at the same site where William Mulholland had ceremonially opened the aqueduct which had closed the flow through the Owens River, to restart it down the 62 miles of the river. David Nahai, president of the L.A. Water and Power Board, countered Mulholland's words from 1913 and said, "There it is ... take it back."

Nevertheless, groundwater pumping continues at a higher rate than the rate at which water recharges the aquifer, resulting in a long-term trend of desertification in the Owens Valley.

Mono Lake
By the 1930s, the water requirements for Los Angeles continued to increase. LADWP started buying water rights in the Mono Basin (the next basin to the north of the Owens Valley).  An extension to the aqueduct was built, which included such engineering feats as tunneling through the Mono Craters (an active volcanic field).  By 1941, the extension was finished, and water in various creeks (such as Rush Creek) were diverted into the aqueduct.  To satisfy California water law, LADWP set up a fish hatchery on Hot Creek, near Mammoth Lakes, California.

Tufa towers in Mono Lake were exposed by water diversions.
The diverted creeks had previously fed Mono Lake, an inland body of water with no outlet. Mono Lake served as a vital ecosystem link, where gulls and migratory birds would nest. Because the creeks were diverted, the water level in Mono Lake started to fall, exposing tufa formations. The water became more saline and alkaline, threatening the brine shrimp that lived in the lake. Increases in salinity decreased adult size, growth rates, and brood sizes, and female mortality during their reproductive cycle.  Changing levels in salinity as a result of water diversion put this species at risk, as well as the birds that nested on two islands (Negit Island and Paoha Island) in the lake.  Falling water levels started making a land bridge to Negit Island, which allowed predators to feed on bird eggs for the first time.

In 1974, David Gaines started to study the biology of Mono Lake. In 1975, while at Stanford, he started to get others interested in the ecosystem of Mono Lake.  This led to a 1977 report on the ecosystem of Mono Lake that highlighted dangers caused by the water diversion. In 1978, the Mono Lake Committee was formed to protect Mono Lake. The Committee (and the National Audubon Society) sued LADWP in 1979, arguing that the diversions violated the public trust doctrine, which states that navigable bodies of water must be managed for the benefit of all people.  The litigation reached the California Supreme Court by 1983, which ruled in favor of the Committee.  Further litigation was initiated in 1984, which claimed that LADWP did not comply with the state fishery protection laws.

Eventually, all of the litigation was adjudicated in 1994, by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB).  The SWRCB hearings lasted for 44 days and were conducted by Board Vice-Chair Marc Del Piero acting as the sole Hearing Officer.  In that ruling (SWRCB Decision 1631), the SWRCB established significant public trust protection and eco-system restoration standards, and LADWP was required to release water into Mono Lake to raise the lake level 20 feet (6.1 m) above the then-current level of 25 feet (7.6 m) below the 1941 level. As of 2011, the water level in Mono Lake has risen only 13 feet (4.0 m) of the required 20 feet (6.1 m). Los Angeles made up for the lost water through state-funded conservation and recycling projects.

Central Valley
In February 2014, after three consecutive years of below-normal rainfall, California faced its most severe drought emergency in decades with fish populations in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta in unprecedented crisis due to the decades of large-scale water exports from Northern California to south of the Delta via state and federal water projects. "Fisheries... people and economic prosperity of northern California are at grave risk", per Bill Jennings, Director of the California Sportfishing Protection Alliance.  Half a million acres of Central Valley farmland supposedly was in danger of going fallow due to drought. On 5 February 2014 the House passed a bill to increase flows from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta to the Central Valley, the Sacramento-San Joaquin Valley Emergency Water Delivery Act (H.R. 3964; 113th Congress). This would suspend the very recent efforts to restore the San Joaquin River since 2009, won after 18 years of litigation, with increased releases from the Friant Dam east of Fresno. Democratic Senators Dianne Feinstein and Barbara Boxer proposed emergency drought legislation of $300 million aid, and to speed up environmental reviews of water projects, so state and federal officials have "operational flexibility" to move water south, from the delta to San Joaquin Valley farms.

On February 14, 2014, President Barack Obama visited near Fresno and announced $170 million worth of initiatives, with $100 million for ranchers facing livestock losses and $60 million to help food banks. Obama joked about the lengthy and incendiary history of water politics in California, saying, "I'm not going to wade into this. I want to get out alive on Valentine's Day."

The theft of water still continues as pump houses that once delivered water to campgrounds have been altered to divert water into the aqueduct leaving the creeks and streams that flow down the Eastern side of the Sierras with barely enough water to maintain a constant and steady flow.  The native Trout that once were abundant are no longer are to be found. The scars and ruined landscapes that are still visible to this date are a stark reminder of the lies and under handed activities carried out by disgraceful and morally incompetent thieves with selfish motives.  A once beautiful and rich valley full of life and abundance destroyed by a few self serving and shallow men.  The valley may return to the beautiful place it once was, but only after the gouging nails of mankind cease to scrape and tear at that which was skillfully crafted by the hand of God. 

Thursday, August 20, 2020

How to Build a Campfire

 There is a primal link in between man and fire. For ancient people, fire offered warmth, defense from wild animals, light in the dark wilderness, and a location to cook food. While fire is no longer important to many people's daily life, it still has a magnetic power that attracts us. The flames of fire can influence legendary stories, produce uplifting conversation, and build sociability among the people circled around it. Also, there's absolutely nothing more romantic than snuggling up to your partner next to a warm fire. And I 'd take some manly campfire-cooked grub over the food of a four-star dining establishment any day. Hence every person should know how to start one and be well-practiced in doing so.

Create Your Fire Bed
When developing a fire, always think of safety first. You do not want to be that person who begins a raving wildfire in a national forest. If your outdoor camping site has actually a designated fire location, use it. If you're camping in a more rugged area that lacks designated fire pits , you are going to need to know how to make your own. Select a site far from trees, bushes, and other plants that would suffer from heat or sparks. Your fire bed ought to be on bare earth, not grass (specifically dead turf). If you can't find a bare location, make your own by digging and raking away plant product, taking particular care in clearing away all dry plant material. Dry grasses, branches, and bark catch fire easily and can quickly get out of control which could make you famous in a bad way.
After you've cleared the location, it's time to make your bed. Gather in dirt and location it in the center of your cleared location. Tamp the dirt into a "platform" that is about 3-4 inches thick
You'll require three fundamentals types of easily found forest products to develop your roaring campfire: tinder, kindling, and fuel wood.

Every great campfire starts with excellent tinder. Tinder ignites easily, but burns fast. Material like dry leaves, dry bark, wood shavings, dry lawn, and some fluffy fungis produce great tinder. If you're a clever camper, you'll bring your own tinder in the form of dryer lint or homemade char fabric. Bringing your own tinder is particularly crucial when everything outside is wet. Think it or not, wet tinder does not catch on fire.

*Collect two or three times as much tinder, kindling, and fuel wood as you think you'll require. You'll be surprised how quickly you'll go through tinder and kindling when you're beginning your fire but the more you use the more coals you'll generate for the next steps.

 Tinder burns fast, so you'll require something with more compound to keep your flame going. You can't move straight to big logs because you'll simply smother your little flame. That's where kindling comes in. Kindling typically consists of small twigs and branches. Go for something that's about the width of a pencil. Like tinder, kindling needs to be dry otherwise it won't burn as quickly. If all you have are wet sticks and branches, attempt whittling away the moist bark with your Leatherman.
(If you don't have a Leatherman or even know what one is you might want to think about getting a hotel room and leave the whole fire thing alone)

Fuel wood. 
Fuel wood is what keeps your fire hot and burning. Contrary to common belief, fuel wood doesn't need to look like the big logs you utilize in a fireplace. If you go too huge, it's going to take a long period of time for the wood to catch fire. Look for branches that are about as broad as your wrist or your forearm.
General ideas. When gathering wood for a fire, collect wood that snaps and breaks easily. Dry wood burns the best. If your wood flexes, it's too wet or "green." If you take a wack at making a fire with this sort of wood, you'll simply get a great deal of smoke and probably end up having an interesting conversation with the local fire rescue service. Unlike tinder and kindling, fuel wood can be a little damp. The fire will dry it out, however it's still not perfect.

3. Lay Your Fire
There are a number of ways to lay your fire. Here are 3 of the most common ways to set things up.

Pyramid Style;
Start off by driving a 14 to 18 inch stick into the center of the fire pit.  Place a ring of tinder at the base of the stick in the shape of a bagel or wreath.  Lean kindling against the center post to form a cone. Lean fuel logs against the center post in the same fashion to form another cone.  Light the base of the post where the tinder is and it should create a natural draft and light right up. 

Ye old Log Cabin Style;
Build a 8 to 10 inch square box with kindling about 10 inches high.  Place a nest of tinder inside and put a roof of kindling over the top.  Build a outer box with fuel wood around the first box and again put a roof on top.  Light the tinder inside and it will take off like a barn fire.

Opa Gundam Style;
Throw a pile of sticks,twigs,tinder and fuel wood in the fire ring, dump an acceralant  on the pile and throw a match on it from about 4 to 6 feet away. Note: If you use this style you have to be able to do the dance.

4. Putting Out Your Fire
So you're done with your fire. Unless you want to break Smokey the Bear's heart, you require to put it out completely. The following standards will eliminate your fire good and dead.

Stir. As you sprinkle water over the cinders, stir them with a stick or shovel. This ensures that all the ashes get wet. When you do not see any steam and do not hear any hissing sounds, you understand you're getting near a totally extinguished fire.

Remember; Fire is not a toy! It can be one of the most evil and destructive forces of nature like wind or water or Nancy Pelosi.

Wednesday, August 19, 2020

One Summer On A Camping Trip.....

  I suddenly noticed my shadow was longer than it was earlier, I looked down in amazement of how it had changed into a long slender shape upon the gravel road.  I turned and saw the sun beginning to sink down behind the foothills that surrounded the valley.  Turning back I could see the giant majesty of the Sierras, but this time, for the very first time in my life they looked different.  I noticed how the spires and creases look so defined and mysterious.  Desolate and silent, existing in the place they had occupied for who knows how long.  It was the first I wondered what my place on this earth was and who I was to become. I walked slowly beck to the campsite where my family was busy with various self appointed camping tasks.  My Mother in the travel trailer preparing side dishes for dinner, my Father arranging a combination of charcoals and hardwood in a way that would be an ultimate barbecue masterpiece, my sisters shaking out rugs and arranging chairs around the fire pit and my brothers going through their fishing gear for the tenth time.  At my young age I was inclined to take notice of where I might be of help to the whole family camping thing.  After butting into several activities without being asked my older sister said,"just go be you and do your thing".  That sounded great, easy enough, but I had no idea what "my thing" was. I wandered away from camp finally reaching the creek which flowed down through the campground.  The water was cold and produced a muffled pounding sound as if below the surface there were boulders bouncing off one another.  I tasted the water and it was sweet and cold, it had a very pure and earthy taste like melted snow and sage.  I wondered how long the creek had been there. Looking towards the mountain I could see the deep gouge of the creek bed that disappeared into the canyons and folds in the high granite peaks. I noticed birds flying close to the water with open beaks catching bug that hovered near the tiny waterfalls that preceded each pool in the creek.  Everything seemed to be just as it should, the birds and bugs doing their thing, but knowing this didn't bring me any closer to understanding what my thing was.
  After a while I returned to camp.  Seeing the smiles on the faces of my sisters and brothers, hearing the laughter and smelling the familiar scent of charcoal burning quickly put my mind at peace.  I was suddenly involved in the activities of the family camp.  Dinner was fried potatoes and barbecued Trout that was taken from the creek just hours earlier.  A Blackberry cobbler that was made during the day by my mother and sisters in the trailer was served with vanilla ice cream for desert. 

  Sitting around the campfire we listened with earnest and eager attention as my father recited stories about the lonely miners that wandered the desert hoping to one day find their fortune in one of the many creeks that ran down from the high mountain peaks.  He described how all of their belongings were strapped to the cargo saddle on the back of their burros and how most of the food and all of the water they needed came from the creek.  I imagined how lonely and yet somehow fulfilled they must have felt.  A life filled with wandering, searching for something that was rarely found but never giving up.


Friday, August 14, 2020

Kents Lake, Utah

Over the Labor Day Weekend we decided to return to one of our favorite lakes located just outside of Beaver Utah. We left Las Vegas, Nevada and the 109 degree heat Friday afternoon. Three and a half hours later we arrived at Kents Lake, in the Fish Lake National Forest. The 70 degree temperature was a welcome relief. We turned off the Air Conditioner in the truck, and remembered how to roll down the windows to enjoy the cool breeze. The original plan was to find a camp spot in the woods off of a fire service road, but as we passed the upper Kents Lake campground we noticed a few open spots and decided to drive in and take a look around. We pulled in and saw a sign that read,” register here”, in front of the campground host’s site, and he was outside making a fire so we stopped to get the skinny on the digs. The host told us that he only had two sites taken so far and that he chased away a big Black Bear from his trailer door a few days ago. He said the fishing was good everywhere on the lake, and that we should keep our food locked up in case the bear comes back. We thanked him for the info and walked away thinking that the bear deal didn’t make for a great bedtime topic, but with the promise of good fishing it would be worth it.  We passed site after site then found one that looked perfect for our rig and just up from the lake, site #15. We took our time setting up camp, getting the fire pit the way we wanted it and getting the poles ready to roll. I didn’t sleep well wondering if a bear was going to rip the trailer in half and gnaw off my head or something else, but with some campfire coffee in the morning I was ready to hit the water and catch fish. We fished all day Saturday and caught Cutthroat, Rainbow and Tiger Trout ranging from 9 to 16 inches and enjoyed the different fight of each type. Back at camp we relaxed and made plans for the next day.

Sunday after breakfast we tried the other side of the lake and did well. We decided to go back down into Beaver to pick up some ice and look around town for a minute. We found a neat little shop that sold sporting goods and a bunch of really old buildings that were still in use. One place that looked good was the Cache Valley Cheese Factory. When we left town we thought it would be a good idea to take an off road trail that turned into a game trail and ended up taking us 40 miles from camp but we got to see some things that I’ll never need to see again for the rest of my life. When we got back to the lake we fished for a while and agreed on Tiger Trout for dinner with campfire coal baked potatoes. Dinner turned out great. Afterwards we sat by the fire and watched everyone down at the lake fishing. One thing that was really cool was seeing all the kids catching fish. It made me think back on my first fish I caught with my Dad.

I forgot about the bear Sunday night and got some good rest. Monday morning we hit the water early, fished for a couple of hours, then headed back to break camp and load up. It turned out to be a great weekend not too far from home. If you get a chance to try this lake I’m sure it would be well worth the trip.
Here are some links to check out.
Beaver, Utah
Fish Lake National Forest; Kents Lake
Tiger Trout
Beaver Sport and Pawn

Autumn Fishing In Wyoming

 Fall in Wyoming is a season of extremes. Frosty mornings change into warm, bright days. These extremes in temperature level make dressing in layers important to remaining comfortable during your getaway. I normally carry a backpack and stash it on the bank for when I need to change up my layers.

In the fall, brilliant and fancy flies often trigger an otherwise unwilling trout to spring into action with an increased tendency towards hostility. My favorite pattern to encourage this sort of fish behavior is the articulated "goldie.".

Tip # 1: Fish with a View.
Discovering the right location to both catch fish and enjoy the landscapes is key for any fall fishing expedition. If you, like me, aren't an ideal angler, you might startle the trout from time to time with a not-so-perfect-cast or an error on the bank or in the water. After these typical mistakes, you will be more than happy to have a moment to take in the gorgeous hues and reflections of the fall landscape while you wait for the fish to forgive and forget.

Tip # 2: Dress in Layers.
No matter where you go, below I provide five pointers for making your fall fly fishing experience a success.

If you're focused on bigger trout, possibly those lingering below the runs in deeper waters, then streamers must fit the expense. The "thin mint" wooly bugger is an adjustment of the famous wooly bugger and is a streamer I utilize regularly in the fall. The pattern consists of peacock hurl for the body and 3 colors (rust, black and olive) for the tail. Thin mints mimic crayfish however are flexible, implying you can easily fish them as minnows or leeches.

Fishing tricos is an enjoyable difficulty, especially for those with a perfectionist streak. Your execution needs to be "area on" in order to take on the 10s of thousands of 'naturals' swarming and drifting around your fly. The obstacle is especially gratifying the moment you land a big bull on your tiny trico.

While there are numerous worthy Wyoming Fall fly fishing places near Laramie, my favorites for fall trips are the Laramie River above Woods Landing, the North Platte River at Treasure Island and 6-Mile Gap near the Colorado border.

Tip # 3: Use Smaller Leaders.  Just trust me.

Tip # 4: Select the Right Flies
This recommendations holds true no matter what season you're fishing. But what works best in the fall? The response, obviously, depends upon a number of aspects. Still, there are specific go-tos for fall fishing, such as the notorious "trico" pattern. Just recently, my other half and I fished the North Platte River at Treasure Island where we were targeted at smaller sized fish on dry flies in the slower, more shallow areas. Given these conditions, tricos were a great choice for us. Tricos, frequently called midgets, are flies that emerge from late August through September. When a hatch is at its peak, the bugs form cloud-like developments over the water, in some cases giving the appearance that the water is smoking.

My first choice for a trico pattern is called the "hackle stacker" in size # 20. They are readily available at Four Season Anglers in Laramie. Grab a handful on your way out of town.

By late morning the large bulk of fish have actually stopped consuming and are back in the deep water to rest till evening. This pattern of fish behavior works in conjunction with the hatching of pests and often leaves a big break in fish activity during the middle of the day. Get your fly in the water either early in the early morning or just before sunset.

The older I get, the harder it has actually ended up being to make time for fishing, specifically during the summer. Summertime weekends in Laramie fill rapidly with back-to-back events and activities that compete with the time I need to go out on the river.

Fall is my favorite time of year to fish. During this season, the decrease in my hectic schedule parallels a boost in fishing activity. This increase is generally the outcome of changing temperature levels and generating habits. Cooler days bring the total water temperature back into a range that is more appropriate for trout, allowing them to feed for longer durations during the day. Brown trout likewise spawn in the fall, and this process produces more territorial disagreements in between large browns, generating likewise leads to an uptick in aggression, and for that reason also in the likelihood of a trout hitting your fly.

As the water drops throughout the summer it likewise becomes more clear, and never is this clearness more noticeable than in the fall. While in the spring you can usually get away with fishing the thickest leader that will fit through the eyelet of your fly rod tip, in the fall the size of your leader and tippet makes all the distinction. I 'd recommend fishing a 5x and even 6x leader and ensuring that it's at least eight or nine feet long.

Tip # 5: Be on the Water at the Edges of the Day.
The early bird gets the worm, and the early angler, the catch.
Big Trout will rise for a snack at sunset when the slower run off calms the surface of the water.  Though you might not hook up you're sure to get a view of a priceless sunset.